Recommended Reading in Ancient Near Eastern Studies


Albertz, Rainer, and Rüdiger Schmitt. Family and Household Religion in Ancient Israel and the Levant. Eisenbrauns: Winona Lake, 2012.

Annus, Amar. Divination and Interpretation of Signs in the Ancient World. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2010.

Assmann, Jan. Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

Bottéro, Jean, Clarisse Herrenschmidt, and Jean-Pierre Vernant. Ancestor of the West: Writing, Reasoning, and Religion in Mesopotamia, Elam, and Greece. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Ehrlich, Carl S. From an Antique Land: An Introduction to Ancient Near Eastern Literature. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

Fincke, Jeanette C. Divination in the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2014.

Hadley, Judith M. The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Meijer, Diederik J. W. Natural Phenomena: Their Meaning, Depiction, and Description in the Ancient Near East. Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1992.

Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. In Search of God: The Meaning and Message of the Everlasting Names. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.

Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. No Graven Image?: Israelite Aniconism in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1995.

Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. The Riddle of Resurrection: “Dying and Rising Gods” in the Ancient Near East. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 2001.

Nissinen, Martti. Prophecy in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context: Mesopotamian, Biblical, and Arabian Perspectives. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000.

Van De Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East, Ca. 3000 – 323 B.C. Malden: Blackwell, 2004.

Podany, Amanda H. Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Porter, Barbara N. One God or Many?: Concepts of Divinity in the Ancient World. Chebeague: Casco Bay Assyriological Institute, 2000.

Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Roth, Martha T., Harry A. Hoffner, and Piotr Michalowski. Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, Second edition. Altanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1997.

Smith, Mark S. The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.

Sommer, Benjamin D. The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Van Der Toorn, Karel. The Image and the Book: Iconic Cults, Aniconism, and the Rise of Book Religion in Israel and the Ancient Near East. Leuven: Peeters, 1997.

Van Der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter Willem Van Dern Horst. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

Xeravits, Géza G. Religion and Female Body in Ancient Judaism and Its Environments. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter GmBH, 2015.


Allen, James P., and Peter Der. Manuelian. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005.

Allen, Thomas George. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: Documents in the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Assmann, Jan. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Assmann, Jan. The Mind of Egypt: History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2002.

Assmann, Jan. Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.

Assmann, Jan. Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom: Re, Amun, and the Crisis of Polytheism. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Baines, John, Leonard H. Lesko, and David P. Silverman. Religion in Ancient Egypt – Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Edited by Byron E. Shafer. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Bleeker, Claas Jouco. Hathor and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion. Leiden: Brill, 1973.

Borghouts, J. F. Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 1978.

Cauville, Sylvie. Offerings to the Gods in Egyptian Temples. Leuven: Peeters, 2012.

Dodson, Aidan. Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-reformation. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2009.

Dodson, Aidan. Poisoned Legacy: The Decline and Fall of the Nineteenth Egyptian Dynasty. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2010.

Dodson, Aidan, and Dyan Hilton. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2010.

Dodson, Aidan. Afterglow of Empire: Egypt from the Fall of the New Kingdom to the Saite Renaissance. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2012.

Dodson, Aidan. Amarna Sunrise: Egypt from Golden Age to Age of Heresy. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2014.

Faulkner, Raymond O., James Wasserman, Ogden Goelet, and Eva Von Dassow. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day: The Papyrus of Ani (royal Scribe of the Divine Offerings), including the Balance of Chapters of the Books of the Dead Known as the Theban Recension. San Francisco: Chronicle, 2008.

Griffiths, John Gwyn. The Origins of Osiris and His Cult. Leiden: Brill, 1980.

Hornung, Erik. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982.

Hornung, Erik. Akhenaten and the Religion of Light. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Karenga, Maulana. Maat: The Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press, 2006.

Kemboly, Mpay. The Question of Evil in Ancient Egypt. GHP Egyptology 12. London: Golden House Publications, 2010.

Kemp, Barry. The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People. London: Thames & Hudson, 2014.

Klotz, David. Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple. New Haven, CT: Yale Egyptological Seminar, 2006.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Vol. 1, The Old and Middle Kingdoms. Second revised edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Vol. 2, The New Kingdom. Second revised edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Vol. 3, The Late Period. Second revised edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Meeks, Dimitri, and Christine Favard-Meeks. Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods. Translated by G. M. Goshgarian. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1991.

Nunn, John F. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. London : British Museum Press, 1996.

Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Myth: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt. 2006 Revised Ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.

Quirke, Stephen. The Cult of Ra: Sun-Worship in Ancient Egypt. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001.

Quirke, Stephen. Exploring Religion in Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

Redford, Donald B. Akhenaten, the Heretic King. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Redford, Donald B. The Ancient Gods Speak: A Guide to Egyptian Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Redford, Donald B. City of the Ram-Man: The Story of Ancient Mendes. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Ritner, Robert K. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice. Chicago: OIP, 1993.

Ritner, Robert K. The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009.

Romer, John. Ancient Lives: Daily Life in Egypt of the Pharaohs. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1984.

Romer, John. A History of Ancient Egypt: From the First Farmers to the Great Pyramid. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2013.

Sauneron, Serge. The Priests of Ancient Egypt. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Shafer, Byron E., Dieter Arnold, et al. Temples of Ancient Egypt. Second edition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Simpson, William K. et al. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry. Third edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Strouhal, Eugen, Bretislav Vachala, and Hana Vymazalová. The Medicine of the Ancient Egyptians 1: Surgery, Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Pediatrics. Translated by Katerina Millerova. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 2015.

Szpakowska, Kasia M. Behind Closed Eyes: Dreams and Nightmares in Ancient Egypt. Swansea: Classical of Wales, 2003.

Szpakowska, Kasia M., and John Baines. Through a Glass Darkly: Magic, Dreams & Prophecy in Ancient Egypt. Swansea: Classical of Wales, 2006.

Szpakowska, Kasia M. Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Recreating Lahun. Malden: Blackwell, 2008.

Szpakowska, Kasia M. Demons in Ancient Egypt. Malden: Blackwell, 2009.

Teeter, Emily. Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Te Velde, Herman. Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion. 2nd Ed. English Translation by Mrs. G. E. van Baaren-Pape. Leiden : Brill, 1977.

Wilkinson, Richard H. Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1992.

Wilkinson, Richard H. Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1994.

Wilkinson, Toby A. H. The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. New York: Random House, 2010.


Albright, William Foxwell. Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths. London: Athlone Press, 1968.

Brody, Aaron J. ‘Each Man Cried Out to His God’ : The Specialized Religion of Canaanite and Phoenician Seafarers. Cambridge: Harvard Semitic Museum, 1999.

Coogan, Michael D., and Mark S. Smith. Stories from Ancient Canaan, Second Edition. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012.

Cornelius, Izak. The Iconography of the Canaanite Gods Reshef and Baʻal: Late Bronze and Iron Age I Periods (ca. 1500-1000 BCE). Fribourg: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

Cornelius, Izak. The Many Faces of the Goddess: The Iconography of the Syro-Palestinian Goddesses Anat, Astarte, Qedeshet, and Asherah (ca. 1500-1000 BCE). Fribourg: Academic Press, 2004.

Day, John. Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

Fleming, Daniel E. The Installation of Baal’s High Priestess at Emar: A Window on Ancient Syrian Religion. Cambridge: Harvard Semitic Museum, 1992.

Fleming, Daniel E. Time at Emar: The Cultic Calendar and the Rituals from the Diviner’s Archive. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2000.

Marsman, Hennie J. Women in Ugarit and Israel: Their Social and Religious Position in the Context of the Ancient Near East. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

Münnich, Maciej M. The God Resheph in the Ancient Near East. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013.

Pardee, Dennis, and Theodore J. Lewis. Ritual and Cult at Ugarit. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2002.

Smith, Mark S. The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990.

Smith, Mark S., and Wayne T. Pritchard. The Ugaritic Baal Cycle. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994.

Smith, Mark S., and Simon B. Parker. Ugaritic Narrative Poetry. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 1997.

Smith, Mark S. The Rituals and Myths of the Feast of the Goodly Gods of KTU/CAT 1.23: Royal Constructions of Opposition, Intersection, Integration, and Domination. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2006.

Woolmer, Mark. Ancient Phoenicia: An Introduction. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2011.

Wyatt, Nicholas. Religious Texts from Ugarit. Second Revised Edition. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.


Abusch, Tzvi, and Karel Van Der. Toorn. Mesopotamian Magic: Textual, Historical, and Interpretative Perspectives. Groningen: Styx Publications, 1999.

Abusch, Tzvi, and Daniel Schwemer. Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Abusch, Tzvi. The Witchcraft Series Maqlû. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2015.

Annus, Amar. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Anzu: Introduction, Cuneiform Text, Transliteration, Score, Glossary, Indices and Sign List. Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, University of Helsinki Press, 2001.

Annus, Amar. The God Ninurta in the Mythology and Royal Ideology of Ancient Mesopotamia. SAAS 14. Helsinki, Finland: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2002.

Annus, Amar, and Alan Lenzi. Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi: The Standard Babylonian Poem of the Righteous Sufferer. SAACT 7. Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, University of Helsinki Press,2010.

Black, Jeremy A. Reading Sumerian Poetry. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Black, Jeremy A. The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Black, Jeremy A., and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006.

Bottéro, Jean. Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Bottéro, Jean. Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia. Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Bottéro, Jean, and André Finet. Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Bottéro, Jean. The Oldest Cuisine in the World: Cooking in Mesopotamia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Cohen, Mark E. Sumerian Hymnology: The Eršemma. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1981.

Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford World’s Classics Revised Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Dick, Michael B. Born in Heaven, Made on Earth: The Making of the Cult Image in the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1999.

Farber, Walter. Lamaštu: An Edition of the Canonical Series of Lamaštu Incantations and Rituals and Related Texts from the Second and First Millennia B.C. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2014.

Geller, Markham J. Ancient Babylonian Medicine: Theory and Practice. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Harris, Rivkah. Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia: The Gilgamesh Epic and Other Ancient Literature. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2000.

Horowitz, Wayne. Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

Jacobsen, Thorkild. The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion. Revised Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978.

Jacobsen, Thorkild. ‘The Harps That Once . . .’ : Sumerian Poetry in Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C. New York: Harper, 1961.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Kraemer, Samuel Noah. Sumerian Mythology. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia : 1998.

Lambert, W. G. Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

Lambert, W. G., A. R. Millard, and Miguel Civil. Atra-Ḫasīs: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2010.

Livingstone, Alasdair. Mystical and Mythological Explanatory Works of Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Lenzi, Alan. Reading Akkadian Prayers and Hymns: An Introduction. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011.

Van De Mieroop, Marc. The Ancient Mesopotamian City. Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

Nissinen, Martti, Robert Kriech Ritner, C. L. Seow, and Peter Machinist. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.

Ponchia, Simonetta, and Mikko Luukko. The Standard Babylonian Myth of Nergal and Ereškigal: Introduction, Cuneiform Text and Transliteration with a Translation, Glossary and Commentary. Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, University of Helsinki Press, 2013.

Porter, Barbara N. What Is a God?: Anthropomorphic and Non-Anthropomorphic Aspects of Deity in Ancient Mesopotamia. Chebeague: Casco Bay Assyriological Institute, 2009.

Rochberg, Francesca. The Heavenly Writing: Divination, Horoscopy, and Astronomy in Ancient Mesopotamian Culture. Cambridge University Press. New York : 2004.

Scurlock, Jo Ann. Sourcebook for Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2014.

Vogelzang, Marianna E., and H. L. J. Vanstiphout. Mesopotamian Poetic Language: Sumerian and Akkadian. Groningen: Styx Publications, 1996.

Wiggermann, Frans A. M. Babylonian Prophylactic Figures: The Ritual Texts. Amsterdam: Free UP, 1986.

Wiggermann, Frans A. M. Mesopotamian Protective Spirits: The Ritual Texts. Groningen: STYX & PP Publications, 1992.

Wolkstein, Diane, and Samuel Noah Kramer. Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth. Harper and Row Publishers, Inc. New York : 1983.


Last Updated: July 6th, 2016