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Image copyright Sarduriur Freydis Sverresdatter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

“Redi iau en Amun, Šeta Šetau nen rekh Šetauef” / “Giving Praise to Amun, Mysterious of Mysteries Whose Mysteries Cannot Be Known” — Image copyright Sarduriur Freydis Sverresdatter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

Second only to Herishef, Amun is the God I give worship to most frequently. These two deities comprise the core of my “domestic Ram God cult.” Though I give worship to Herishef more frequently than Amun, the content of Herishef’s worship is presently less robust. This is on account of Herishef’s cult center’s temple lying in extensive ruin, with most details and what few of His festivals we know of  coming from other religious sites throughout Egypt where He was not the primary object of cult. “Herishef Theology” as such is rather fragmentary. Conversely, Amun’s worship is much more full-bodied, since there is a wealth of texts from many consecutive periods of Ancient Egyptian history from which we may construct a well-rounded, cult-specific theology. Likewise, more cult centers of Amun, along with widely-attested descriptions of some of the rituals and festivals conducted in His honor, have survived the ages relatively intact compared to those of most other Egyptian deities.

Of all the surviving evidence which informs Modern understandings of Amun Theology, though all examples are valuable in the exploration of Amun’s multifarious nature and elaborate State and regional cults, I’ve found the Amun hymns from Hebet (Hibis) Temple in the Khargeh Oasis to be particularly illuminating. They are most readily accessible via David Klotz’s Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple. Though it is not a complete transcript of all the texts inscribed upon the walls of Hebet Temple, and while it does not include very many images of the original reliefs and inscriptions, David Klotz’s study on five of the hymns to Amun from Hypostyle M of Hebet Temple in the Khargeh Oasis is perhaps the most intensive of its kind. It showcases some of the most beautiful, largely intact, “self-contained” examples which form the basis of our Modern understanding of Amun Theology, which Klotz contrasts with diverse sources hailing from other locations and periods.

In addition to being rarer evidence from a temple rather than from much more plentiful priestly autobiographies, tomb inscriptions, and assorted papyri, the Hebet Amun hymns are particularly important because they date to the Persian Period. Although the Persian Period saw a great deal of religious construction — contrary to popular misconception based on the negative propaganda circulated throughout history concerning King Cambyses II particularly and his alleged “irreverence” for Egyptian religion(s), the lion’s share of which is likely better ascribed to the years of Neo-Assyrian rule prior to Persian dominion (Klotz, 2014: 173) — not much survives from that era. Hebet Temple, whose construction technically began during the sunset-years of the Saite Period, is the only Perso-Egyptian religious structure to have survived largely intact — together with later additions made by Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, and finally a minor contribution made during the tragically brief reign of Roman Emperor Servius Sulpicius Galba in the 1st century. (Bilotta et al., 378) The reliefs and texts engraved upon its walls have also shed some light on many other regional theologies’ stages of development before the Ptolemaic Period, including but not limited to those of Behdet (Edfu) and Henen-nesu (Herakleopolis Magna). This is incredibly fortunate, since Henen-nesu in particular lies in a state of extensive ruin, and we must rely heavily on material from other locations to inform our view of Herakleopolitan theology and ritual proceedings. Hebet Temple is an extensive catalogue of hymns, rituals, local theogonies, and other elements of Egyptian religion(s) which exist almost nowhere else throughout Egypt in such an intact state. Many of these elements do not relate directly and exclusively to Amun, though Amun nevertheless dominates throughout. Klotz believes that those who undertook the monumental task of recording all this sacred information were motivated by fear of destruction (2014: 174), witnessed particularly in the Northern Delta, but whatever the reason for their meticulousness, we unquestionably benefit immensely from the survival of Hebet Temple.

The personal devotional value of Hebet Temple’s inscriptions is as priceless as their historical and theological value. Over the last few years, they have not only helped to broaden my understanding of Amun Theology overall, they have also lent much-needed heart and greater uniformity to an everyday, non-festival worship regimen for Amun, to augment the essential Kemetic Orthodox ritual of senut.

Whenever I worship Amun, I recite the Invocation Hymn, followed by the Hymn to the Bau of Amun (which can easily be construed as an “extension” of the Invocation Hymn), and conclude with the Great Hymn (excluding the concluding lines wherein King Darius I is extolled, the Persian Pharaoh who commissioned the oldest of the existing structures at Hebet). Klotz also includes the Creator Hymn and the Liturgical Hymn, the latter he considers an abridgement of the Great Hymn. (2006: 171)

While all of these hymns are of potential use for the Modern worshiper of Amun, I will not be transcribing the last two hymns included in Klotz’s magnum opus below, nor shall I further summarize his interpretations and comments on them in this entry. I do not wish to unduly reproduce too much of his text. I will leave it to the reader to purchase or borrow the book to study themselves, and/or to carefully contemplate the meaning of the first three hymns as they are given below.

For each of the three hymns, the “transliterese” will be given first. “Transliterese,” for those who don’t know, is the creation of pronounceable words (albeit imperfect ones) by inserting appropriate vowels within the converted Latin characters; similarly to Hebrew, vowels are not directly expressed in Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian text (except for the occasional “a” [not to be confused with glottal stops, which are represented similarly in “transliterese”], “i/y”, and “u”s rendered from “w”s). Klotz only gives the transliterated characters, which, to those not trained in any stage of Ancient Egyptian language, are difficult to make sense of.

Following the “transliterese,” the English translation will be shown as Klotz gives it. This includes using the Anglicized Greek names of deities, versus Their Egyptian names which are included in the “transliterese.”

The parenthetical numbers embedded in the text relate to where the lines begin and end in the original temple inscriptions. They also serve to guide the reader in matching the “transliterese” to its English translation.

Finally, the conclusion of the Great Amun Hymn wherein Pharaoh Darius I is praised and prayed for will be omitted from the transcription.

I. THE INVOCATION HYMN (2006: 188 – 191)

(1) Seshem netu’a en Amun nety her na anu en nebes
Djed medu in
(2) w’ab en su Hor senetjer su Djehuty
er iret ikhet nebet neferet w’abet
en Amun-Re neb-nisut-tawy
en Amun-Re neb-Hebet-user-khepesh
(3) Khefet renu weruef nebu shetau
hapu er meswef
Sesh aawy en pet her sa ta
pesedj neb nisut tawy em kheperuef

[Refrain for each Ba:]

resti hotepti res ek em hotep
res Amun em ankh em hotep
res [N] em hotep

(4) Hor imy sepawet seti tawy
ka a’a Nun ankh-djet
em renef en Re re-neb

(5) ankh-mesu khenty iabetef
mer her-neb
em renef menekh en Iah
netjer ibu hatiu

(6) isheshef tjau her serq hetit
em renef en Amun-men-em-ikhet-neb
ba Shu en netjeru nebu

(7) han ankh qema khet-en-ankh
Nepri bah tawy
iuty ankh em khemef em shen tawy
em renef en Nun-Wer

(8) ba imy mehenetef
pesedj em akhtyfi
pekher su tekaef em ta
em renef en Res-Wedja
netjer ir seshep

(9) Hor ba diu
ankhy ankh em Nun
em renef en ka-nisut-ankh

(10) ru ankh-her khenty Hat-Aat
ishesh maiu neb
em renef en ba-bau
netjer iaut menmenet

(11) Hor-Horu
sab-shuty ankh em netjeru
em renef en Horakhty
netjer sedjru

(12) aq em ta
mer-serq em qabef
em renef en ba-imyu-mu
netjer mehiut

(13) ankh em kheprer
pai er setjez-Hehu
ankh em renef en Nehebkau
netjer imyu qeresut sen

(1) Leading the secret rites of Amun which are upon the slates of zizyphus.
Words spoken by one
(2) Horus having purified him, and Thoth having censed him,
in order to do everything good and pure
for Amun-Re Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands
for Amun-Re Lord of Hibis, Mighty of Scimitar,
(3) according to all His mysterious titularies,
which are hidden from His children:
It is so that the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands might shine in His manifestations, that the doors of Heaven are opened upon Earth.

[Refrain for each Ba:]

Awake being rested, may You awake in peace!
May Amun awake in life and peace,
may [N] awake in peace!

(4) Horus Who is in the Districts, Who illumines the Two Lands,
Bull Who Ejaculates Nun, Who lives eternally,
in His name of Re, every day.

(5) The One living of births in His left eye,
Whom everyone loves,
in His effective name of “Moon,”
God of hearts and minds.

(6) It is in allowing throats to breathe that He spits out wind,
in His name of Amun-Who-Endures-In-All-Things,
the Ba of Shu for every God.

(7) Body of Life Who creates the Wood-of-Life,
Nepri Who floods the Two Lands,
nobody in the circuit of the Two Lands living without His knowledge,
in His name of Nun the Elder.

(8) The Ba-Ram Who is in His Mehenet-serpent,
Who illumines by means of His brilliant eyes,
Whose torch-flame encircles Him in the Earth,
in His name of Res-Wedja,
God Who creates the morning-light.

(9) Horus of the Five Bau
Living One Who Lives in Nun,
in His name of Living Royal Ka,
God of the Sunfolk.

(10) Lion, Living-of-Face before the Great Temple (of Heliopolis),
Who spits out every lion,
in His name of Ba of Bau
God of Livestock.

(11) Horus of Horuses
Dappled of plumage, Who lives as Falcon-Gods,
in His name of Horakhty
God of the Recumbent Ones.

(12) He Who enters into the Earth,
the Sro-lake in His innards,
in His name of Ba of Those in the Water (Crocodiles),
God of Fish.

(13) He Who lives as a scarab-beetle,
Who flies to that which the Heh-Gods support,
Who lives in His name of Nehebkau,
God of Those in Their tombs.

II. HYMN TO THE BAU OF AMUN (2006: 191 – 195)

(1) tut Amun
tut Atum
tut (2) Khepri
tut Re

wati irenef su em (3) Hehu
Tatenen kheper em hat

tut nebi djetef (4) em awiefi djesef
em kheper neb em abef (5)

tut api wer khenti Nut
nedjenef (6) pet ta mi qed sen
djer webenef em (7) Nun imi qayt

qa Khemeniu (8) en ef em iau khefet haef
dega sen em kheper (9) ef tepi em Hor-Seti
shenef neb em nebit em (10) teka en irtyefi
sehedjenef shen pet em shutyefi (11) wer

maref netuaef
paenef (12) men uah
nen sekef em Hehu en djet
(13) her djai heret
her pekher duat em kheret-heru
en mer (14) sekhen Wesir em heqa Igaret
her semawi djetef (15) em wehem henty ahef
senedjem ib en mut (16) en saef Hor

wenenef pu wenef her weben (17) hotep re-neb
ti su em pet her seshep tawy en sa (18) es
seshem ankhu ankh djet

Amun ba imy wenemetef
em Atenef em pet heru
neb neheh
nen sek ek djet her weben hotep

tut Amun
(19) tut Atum
tut Wesir em hat iabetef em gesgesen Djehuty
tut Atenef em gereh
mau mesutef

djai (20) kheref Nut re-neb m’ab Akhti
er sekheper teru er nemetetef khefet Re
nen ki en pet her-khuef
er demedj netjeru

netjer menekh qen (21) em sedjem senedjem-ib sen
haa sen en ef er shu tjenu iief en sen
mi netef tur sau weru
Khenmes sau nedjesu (22)
her-tep ankh wedja seneb en saef
nety her setef em ahef
djedkhertu neheh er ahauef
her weben hotep nen ab ankh djet

Amun ba imi iabetef
Iah em (23) gereh heqa ankhu
er wepet teru abdu reneput iief
ankh djet her weben hotep

tut Amun
tut Shu
tut qa er netjeru nebu (24)

tut djeser-kheperu em ifed tjau nu pet
katu iu per sen em ra en hemef

ba Shu hen tjau djai pet re-neb
ankh em (25) setjez-Shu ra-a shen pet

Iuef aqef em khut neb
kheper sen ankh segru
wedja pehtyef er maiu neb

iuef seqendef (26) pet
sehenenef Wadj-Wer
hotep sen em hotepef

ba er ba neb
iuef semehef Hapi er ded ibef
aadjedef sehut (27) er meref
nen ki heref sekhem

sedjemtu kheruef nen ma’atuef
her serq hetyt neb
semen ib en bekau her mesu es
ankh tjau per (28) imes

pekher shetat en Weredj-Ib
em tjau nedjem em mehyt
mehenef fenedef em khnemuef neb em nu neb re neb
er dit sekhemef em djetef
her (29) ii er nuef nen ab em aef
en renef Hor Tjema’a
khui Shentayet
djed sa es her neset en itef
ankh djet

Amun ba en Shu
sheqed (30) em setjez
her iud pet er ta
ti su men em ikhet neb
ankh ankhtu imef djet

(1) You are Amun
You are Atum
You are (2) Khepri
You are Re.

Sole One Who made Himself Into (3) Millions,
Tatenen Who came about in the beginning.

You are the One Who built His body (4) with His own hands,
in every form of His (5) desire.

You are the great winged scarab within Nut,
Who (6) protected Heaven and Earth in their entirety,
while rising from Nun within the primaeval mound.

The Ogdoad rises (8) for Him in jubilation when He appears,
They see by means of His (9) first manifestation as Horus-Who-Illumines,
Whose entire circuit is in the spit-fire and (10) torch-fire of His eyes,
having illumined the circuit of Heaven with His (11) great double-plumes.

His daily course is successful,
having already (12) remained and endured,
He shall not perish for many millions of eternities,
(13) while sailing the Heavens,
and going through the Netherworld daily,
from His desire (14) to unite with Osiris as Ruler of Igaret,
while renewing His (15) body again within His shrine,
so that the mother (16) of His son, Horus, is pleased.

His existence is in His rising and (17) setting every day,
while He is in Heaven, illumining the Two Lands for Her son,
Who directs the living, as He lives eternally.

O Amun, Ba inside His Right Eye,
within His solar disk in Heaven during the day,
Lord of cyclical-eternity,
You shall not perish eternally, while rising and setting.

You are Amun,
(19) You are Atum,
You are Osiris in the front of His left eye, in that which Thoth restored,
You are His disk during the night,
Whose births are renewed.

Then (20) He traverses Nut every day together with Akhti,
in order to create the seasons according to His movements against those of Re,
up to the union of gods.

The beneficent God, valiant (21) in listening, Who pleases their hearts,
for Whom they rejoice more than for the sun, each time He comes to them,
as He is one Who respects the sons of the great,
Who befriends the sons of the (22) lowly,
presiding over the life, prosperity, and health of His son,
who is upon his throne in the palace,
whose lifetime shall be called eternity,
rising and setting without cease, living eternally.

Amun, the Ba within His Left Eye,
Moon during (23) the night, Who rules the living stars,
in order to divide the seasons, months, and years when He comes,
Who lives eternally while rising and setting.

You are Amun,
You are Shu,
You are the highest of the Gods, (24)
You are “Sacred of Manifestations” as the Four Winds of Heaven,
so You are called, when They come forth from the mouth of His Majesty.

The Ba of Shu, Who bends the winds, Who traverses Heaven daily,
Who lives as (25) the Supports of Shu, unto the limit of the heavenly circuit.

He enters into every tree,
with the result that the branches come alive:
His power is more cutting than any powerful lion.

He makes the sky (26) rage,
and He stirs up the sea:
it is only through His calming that they settle down.

The One Who is Most Manifest of Manifestations.
He makes Hapi flood according to His will,
and He makes flourish the fields (27) according to His desire:
nobody else being as powerful besides Him.

His voice is heard, but He is not seen,
while letting every throat breathe.
The One Who reassures the pregnant concerning her children,
so the newborn which comes (28) from her lives.

He Who goes around the mysterious-regions for Weary-of-Heart (Osiris),
existing as the sweet North Wind.
It was to let Him have use of His body
that He filled His nose by means of all of His scents, at all times, every day,
while (29) arriving at His time, without cease in His action,
in His name of Horus Valiant-of-Arm,
Who protects Shentayet,
so that Her son might endure upon the throne of His Father,
may He live eternally.

Amun, the Ba of Shu,
Who travels (30) within a cloud,
while separating Earth from Heaven,
as He endures in all things.
The Life-Force from Whom one lives, eternally.

III. THE GREAT AMUN HYMN (2006: 196 – 209)

Djed kher Khemeniu weru nu pauty tepy
tur netjer netjerut imytusen
em kheperuef Re

iret (33, 1b) kheper em Re
rediu em netjer kheper-djesef

qesuef em hedj
inemef em nub
her-tepef em khesbedj ma’a
tjesutef iry em mefkat

netjer nefer
ir su em djetef
mes (2) su
nen perenef em het peret en ef henti
sehedjenef tawy

pesedjet em iau en haref

henku sen en ef er qau en pet
dua sen mes [ . . . ]
mesuef her sheshem en ef (3) shetau
nehem sen en ef kher djadja-netjeru sen

Wesha sen henku en kaef
dua sen en ef em [ . . . ] hen [ . . . ]
sebty em ra sen

dua sen su (4) her kaut awyfy
sia sen hemef em neb sen
mi turef nen er au

nekhebetef em djuu er nun em Amun-men-em-khet-neb
netjer pen (5) shepes shaa ta em sekheruef

Tatenen tjeni er netjeru
nekhekh renpy
zebi neheh
sheta heru medes merti
pedj imauef

haef em seweh
pet her (6) tepef
Nun kher seshtaef
hem-netjeref pu em bik her-tep serekh

ma’au kheref er djai en Manu
djer naef er shetau en duat

Khemeniu her djed

i (7) Amun-Re
amunef su em djefedjef

ba pesedj em wedjatyfy biau
djeseri ni rekhtuef

hai iruu
sedga su em Akhtyfy
shetai ni rekhtu (8) seshtauef

nis-hekenu er ek  er het en Nut
sema’a tu mesut ek netjeru
henem tu Ma’at er ah ek sheta
sakh tu saty ek i Merti ek i
nehep en ek setut ek (9) em nehep
shen ek tawy em pesedj ek
remen ek her dju pui en Igaret
duatyu her seshep em setut ek

shezep tu het net sabu
setja sen tu em wia ek em dju amun
(10) bentyu bau  iabetet her dua ek
hetjet sen en ek en mait en Aten ek
hen en ek bau Pe Nekhen
hedjedjut ek hedjet em heru sen

nai ek (11) petyki nen khefti ek
wepesen heh ek er nehawy
sai djoseru em mu wia ek
ser en ek Abdju Wenti
dem Hor sheseref imef
nur en ef pet-ta em (12) igepef
hekaef sekhem her der kheftief
mabaef medes em Webenra
nehep su Aker iref saef
intief su em intief

wenem su iretef
(13) akhes imef
wenem si wenemi em nebit

seni ek tjesetut
izyt ek em ma’au nefer
mer-deswy em hotep kher ek

haa wia ek
susekh waut ek
djer ineq (14) ek pa dju-qed
ikhemu-wered ikhemu-sek her sah ek ta em ma’a-kheru

henem tu Mesket
hepet tu mut ek

seni ek Akhet Imentet
pedj ta awyfy er (15) shesep ek
dua tu wenenet neb

hotep ek em duat em wenut en ikhekh
seres ek Wesir em setut ek

weben ek her tepu net qererut [ . . . ]
[ . . . ] (16) her nemut sen
amun-sekheru sekheper tu her adjadj
seshep tu Aten ek djes ek
saha en ek sedjru her ges sen

weba en ek imhet (17) em wesha
iabet ek em iden em gereh

weben ek em duati her iabetet net pet
nebi tu em idenek em Anpet
imenet ek her ma’a ir en ek
besi en (18) ek her medjut seshtau ek

ii en ek em pefi
seheden ek em pen
nedjen ek nefa mi nen her-sa ta

sheta kheperu ek er netjer neb
(19) shepsiti
werti em pesedjet
nen netjer wetetjetu ef en inem ek
nen abut senty sen er qi ek
netek hem [ . . . ] heqa en ek neb
pet-ta kher sekheru ek
netjeru kher (20) awy ek i
remetj kher redwy ek i

nim su netjer miti ek
netek Re heri netjeru
khai bener merut

i ba u shefy (21) Atenwy ek i
qa-abwy soped-henty
khebeset webkhet wedjaty djamu
tjehen-khekeru mefkat hai
(22) nub hau

semenen ek neset ek em bu neb mer ek
en mer sa’sha ren ek
niwewet sepawet her wetjez neferu ek
nen nep gauu her seshem ek

set ek djer’a em qayt (23) en Unu
sah ek ta em mer-deswy

khai ek em net em sehut amunet
Amunet em khat ek

kheni en ek her Ahet
khefa ek abwy es
nebi en ek her (24) Mehet-Weret
nen uabu sha’em tema ef iu ta em Nun
sebentu her djuu

sah ek ta er niut Henen-nesu
na ek im re Naret-pehut
(25) senen ek im Herishef
ba ek shepes em Naret-pehut
hotep em djebau khau netjeru peru im ek

ishesh ek em Shu
tef ek em Tefnut
er qema en ek pesedjet em sha’a kheper

netek ru
tjau ek Ruty

tjezen ek hey net (26) pesedjet
peseshen ek kau sen
seheb sen en ek em er peru sen

ba ek em (27) Djedu
demedj em netjer ifed em Anpet

kheprer setji
Kamutef ha em ihetef
hai setji em neferuef
seshem e su er bu neb mer ek
er iunen (28) ek net Nit

hotep seshem ek em Hat-Biti
em sesh en neb Zaut
sensen tu mut ek Nit em nuu nedjem-merut
idemy es hau ek em Res-Nit Meh-Nit
menekhet ek (29) her awy mesehwy

seni en ek sesh
sekhenen ek Akh-Bit
sehen ib ek her wawet Mehyu

sehatu Wadjet em Dep
mehenet (30) her tep ek em Pe
zema en ek tawy kher Behdet ek her neset ek net Sema-Behdet

set ek w’ab em henu Hat-Nehet
wadjyt ek em henu Ta-Bener
nesiut ek im em Khasu
netjeru netjeret (31) em shemes ek

ii en ek im en Iusaas
hotep ba ek Hetepet

netek pu Nun-Wer Amun-Wer
imyu at em Hat-Aat em Iunu

aq ek em (32) heret em setut Iunu
er sedega ek tjawy ek i em Mesnet

kherepu en ek hotepu em Sheta-set
pekher tu mesu ek netjeru sepiu
hen (33) tu nau imyu khet ek

akhemu ek nu Heqa-Andj hat ek shetat em duat Kher-Aha
mesu ek em khau er khefet-her ek
pedjet et ames (34) ek im er sa ek
er titi kheftiu ek em restyu

weba en ek imhet resit Sepa
er sekhi Nun (35) em tjephetef

wepen ek tawy em Ineb-Hedj
em Tatenen semsu pa’utyu
semenen ek neset ek em Ankh-Tawy
em i Amun-Re ba neb hy

qi (36) ek pu em zep-tepi
djer weben ek em Amun-Re-Ptah

hotep ib ek em niwet ek Waset
iareti ky irti ky djam ek ames ek
wen awy nu pet em Ipet-Sut (37)
Shu Tefnut Mut Khonsu

khenti ek khenti ipet ek em kheperu em Min
fai’a qa-shuty nisut-netjeru
fai’a neb wereret
user (38) fau neb qefa
Kamutef khenti sekhetef
abu em neferuef neb metj
khesbedj kem khebsut
tjehenet heru meriti
neb wadjyti aperu em sau
(39) Gebti khenty hesep
Ipu hery khetef

Atum aaneb temu
kheprer pu kheper em zep-tepi
Montu-Re her-ib Waset
ka nekht pu hui (40) khaku-ib
Nehi-Ptah em Waset
Amun-Re neb neheh-djet

netek Tatenen
kheperu ek em Hapi ta
semsu wer er netjeru

netek Nun-Wer
neni (41) su her akhet
sanekh ek ta em hebebet ek

netek pet
netek ta
netek duat
netek mu
netek tjau imytu sen

ha en ek irut
nen weredjenef

nedj en nety iuty
(42) sanekh ek set mi qema ek set
iptu bak sen en ka ek

Amun-Re neb nety neb
user-ib seheb-shenbet

suah ek sa ek neti her neset ek
renep ek hauef hery-tep (43) ta
setut ek su
saha ek su
kher iaut ek seshem ek menekh

[ . . . (44) ]

ihy Merti zep ifed
Amun-Re neb-nisut-tawy-khenty-Ipet-Sut

Then says the Great Ogdoad of the Initial Moment,
as They respect the God Who is between Them,
the One most-secret of forms,
in His manifestation of Re.

Transforming (1b) into Re,
having been made as the God Who came about by Himself.

Whose bones are silver,
Whose skin is gold,
Whose hair is true lapis-lazuli,
Whose teeth are likewise of turquoise.

The Good God,
Who put Himself into His body,
Who bore (2) bore Himself,
being unable to emerge from the womb which emerged for Him equipped,
He having already illumined the Two Lands.

The Ennead praises to His face:

It is to the limits of Heaven that They acclaim Him,
They worshiping He who bore [ . . . ],
His children directing mysteries (3) for Him.

Just as They make music for Him bearing Their Divine harps,
so do They utter praises for His ka,
They worship Him with [ . . . ] praise [ . . . ]
[ . . . ] the lips in Their mouths

They worship Him (4) because of the works of His hands.
It is as Their Lord that They recognize His majesty,
as He respects Them entirely.

His titulary is from the mountains to the sea as Amun-Who-Endures-In-Everything,
this noble God (5) Who began the world through His plans.

Tatenen, the most distinguished of the Gods,
Old One Who Becomes Young,
Who traverses eternity,
mysterious of faces, sharp of eyes,
Who radiates His brilliance.

His body is of air,
the sky is over (6) His head,
Nun bears His mysterious image,
and the falcon atop the serekh is His pure priest.

He has true winds to sail to Manu,
when He travels to the mysteries of the Netherworld.

The Ogdoad says:

O (7) Amun-Re,
Who hides Himself within His Iris!

Ba Who illumines by means of His oracular wedjat-eyes,
Who manifests a manifestation,
Sacred One, Who cannot be known.

Brilliant of visible forms,
Who hides Himself with His mysterious akh-eyes:
Mysterious One, Whose secrets (8) cannot be known.

Hymns are made to You at the womb of Nut!
It is so that Ma’at might unite with You at Your secret chamber
that Your Divine children direct You,
as Your daughters, your Merti, transfigure You.
It is at dawn (9) that Your rays leap up for You,
so You might encircle the Two Lands with Your radiance.
When You set Yourself upon this mountain of Igaret
the Datians glow in Your rays.

The corporation of jackals accepts You,
as They tow You in Your barque from the hidden Western Mountain,
(10) the Baboons, the Eastern Bau, worship You
They jubilating to You because of the rays of Your Aten.
The Bau of Pe and Nekhen gesture for You,
Your illuminations shining in Their faces.

(11) It is without Your enemy that You traverse Your Two Heavens,
Your fiery breath having blazed against the two Dangerous Ones.
Just as the Red Fish in the water of Your barque are aware,
so do the Abdju-fish warn You of Wenti,
so that Horus might cut him with His arrows,
Heaven and Earth quake in fear of Him in (12) His stormcloud,
His heka-magic being powerful in repelling His enemy,
and this harpoon piercing into Webenra.
Aker rears Himself up, making His protection,
forcing him back into his hole

His Eye devours him,
(13) with the result that it becomes effective over him,
and that the wenem-flames devour him with the nebi-flame.

You pass by the sandbank,
Your crew having perfect, good winds,
the Lake of Two Knives being in peace beneath You,
that Your barque rejoices,
is with Your ways widened,
since (14) You bound that dju-qed-snake.
The Indefatigable and Imperishable Stars bring You to land in justification.

Just as Mesqet receives You,
so does Your Mother embrace You.

Just as You pass through the Western Akhet,
so does the Earth spread its arms (15) to receive You,
with the result that all who exist praise You.

You set in the Netherworld in the hour of the evening glow,
so You might awaken Osiris with Your rays.

It is above the heads of the Cavernous Ones that You rise
[ . . . ] (16) over those Who are beneath Their slaughtering places.
Those hidden of condition help create You through acclamation,
while Your own Aten illumines You.
The recumbent serpents stand up for You upon their sides. (17)

Imehet is opened for You in the deep night,
Your left eye is the substitute-disc in the night.

It is through the East of Heaven that You rise in the morning,
having (re-)created Yourself in Your disc in Anpet
Your right eye sees that which You created,
You having ascended (18) from the depths of Your mysteries.

Just as You have come from there,
so have You illumined in here,
having protected these ones like those upon Earth.

Your manifestations are more mysterious than any God,
(19) You are august,
You are great in the Ennead,
without a God begotten of Your color,
without any object that might resemble Your form.

You are the majesty [ . . . ] all that You have ruled.
Heaven and Earth are under Your designs,
the Gods are in (20) Your hands,
mankind beneath Your feet.

Who is the God of Your likeness?
You are Re, Chief of the Gods,
Who appears, Sweet of Love.

O Ba [ . . . ] (21) Awesome of Your Two Atens,
High of Horns, Sharp of Tips,
with radiant beard, electrum wedjat-eyes,
Scintillating of Adornments, Turquoise of Radiance,
(22) and Gold of Body.

It is from the desire to aggrandize Your name
that You established Your throne in every place You desire;
cities and nomes carry Your sacred barque,
without grain lacking beneath Your image.

Your ancient throne is the Mound (21) of Hermopolis,
it is from the Lake of Two Knives that You reach land.

It is from the water surface that You appear in the hidden egg,
Amunet being with You.

Just as You have alighted upon the Heavenly Cow,
while grasping Her horns,
so You have swam upon (24) Mehet-Weret,
without any lotus-roots, from His tema while the Earth was in Nun,
You reached up to the mountains.

You land at the city of Herakleopolis Magna,
so that You might travel thence to Naret,
(25) Your image there is Harsaphes,
Your noble ba-ram in Naret,
which stays in the ten-thousands and thousands of Gods Who came from You.

Just as You spit out Shu,
so do You expectorate Tefnut,
in order to create the Ennead for You at the beginning of existence.
You are the lion,
Your offspring are the Two Lions.

Just as You assembled the corporation of the (26) Ennead,
so did You divide the Two Lands beneath Their kau,
with the result that They celebrate for You in Their temples.

Your ba-ram is in (27) Mendes,
assembled from the Four Gods in Anpet:

Ithyphallic Scarab,
Lord of the Gods,
Kamutef, Who rejoices inside His Heavenly Cow,
Husband Who procreates through His phallus,
You leading Her anywhere You please,
namely to Your (28) shrine in the Neit-nome.

It is in the biti-temple that Your image rests,
in the nest of the Lord of Sais,
Your Mother, Neit, embraces You as a child, Sweet of Love,
clothing Your body with red cloth in the Southern and Northern Neit-chapels,
Your menekh-clothing (29) being upon the arms of the Two Crocodiles.

Just as You passed through the marshes,
so did You alight at Chemmis,
Your heart alighting upon the Lower Egyptian roads.

Wadjet greets You in Dep,
the Mehenet-serpent (30) is upon Your head in Pe,
You having united the Two Lands beneath Your throne
being upon Your seat of Sema-Behdet.

Your pure place is within Hat-Nehet,
Your pillared hall in Ta-Bener,
Your Kingship is in the Xoite nome,
with Gods and Goddesses (31) in Your service.

It is so Your Ba might become satisfied in Hetepet
that You have come here to Iusaas.

You are Nun the Elder, Amun the Elder,
Who is in the sanctuary in the Great Temple in Heliopolis.

It is via the sunbeams of Heliopolis that You enter (32) the sky,
so You might behold Your children in Menset.

It is with Your children, the remaining Gods, surrounding You,
and those who are in Your service protecting (33) You,
that offerings are consecrated to You in Sheta-set.

Your images from Heliopolis and your secret temple are in the crypt of Kheraha.
Your children are as thousands before You,
Your bow and Your (34) ames-scepter being there for Your protection,
in order to trample Your enemies as execration figures.

It is in order to raise Nun (35) from His cavern
that You have opened the Southern Imehet of Sepa.

Just as You divided the Two Lands in Memphis,
as Tatenen, Eldest of the Primaeval Ones,
so did You establish Your throne in Ankhtawy,
as Amun-Re, Ba Lord of the Firmament.

These both mean: Your (36) form in the Initial Moment,
when You arose as Amun-Re-Ptah.

It is in Your city, Thebes, that Your heart is content.
Your uraei, You eyes, Your djam-scepter and Your ames-scepter,
Opener of the Doors in Heaven in (37) Karnak,
Shu, Tefnut, Mut, and Khonsu.

Your cult images are within Your Opet are manifestations of Min:
Upraised of Arm, Tall of Plumes, King of the Gods.
Upraised of Arm, Lord of the Double-Crown,
Mighty of (38) Prestige and Lord of Respect.
Kamutef, Foremost of His Fields,
Vaunted of His Beauty, Lord of the Phallus.
Turquoise and black of beard,
with sparkling faces, the Meriti,
Lord of the wedjat-eyes, equipped with amulets,
(39) He of Coptos, Foremost of the Garden,
He of Akhmim, Who is Upon His Platform.

Amun the Great, Lord of Creation
(that means Khepri Who came about at the First Instant).
Montu-Re in Thebes
(that means the Strong Bull, Who smites (40) the disaffected).
Nehi-Ptah in Thebes,
Amun-Re, Lord of All Eternity.

You are Tatenen,
Your manifestations are in Hapi and Earth,
Eldest and Greatest of the Gods.

You are Nun the Great,
Who settles (41) upon the fields,
letting the earth live with Your waters.

Yours is the sky,
Yours is the earth,
Yours is the Netherworld,
Yours are the waters,
and Yours are the air which is within them.

That which is made acclaims You,
without tiring:

O Protector of that which is and that which is not,
(42) You support them as You create them.
(thus) their tribute is apportioned for Your Ka.

O Amun-Re, Lord of Everything That Is,
Strong of Heart, Festive of Chest.

May You establish Your son who is upon Your throne,
may You rejuvenate his body upon (43) Earth,
may You fashion his image,
and cause him to appear,
assuming Your offices and Your beneficent image.

[ . . . (44) ]

The Merti sing four times:

O Amun-Re, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, Foremost of Karnak,
O Amun-Re, Lord of Hebet, Valiant of Scimitar!

From David Klotz's Adoration of the Ram, p. 290, showing the location of the hymns in Hypostyle M.

From David Klotz’s Adoration of the Ram, p. 290, showing the location of the hymns in Hypostyle M.


Bilotta, Emilio, Alessandro Flora, Stefania Lirer, and Carlo Viggiani, eds. Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites, Napoli, Italy, 30-31 May 2013. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.

Klotz, David. Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple. New Haven, CT: Yale Egyptological Seminar, 2006.

Klotz, David. “Hibis Varia (§1-3): Diverse Liturgical Texts from Hibis Temple.” Studien Zur AltägyptiSchen Kultur Vol. 43, 2014: pp 174 – 207.